Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas

Here is a good introduction into the genetics of Indigenous Americans. 

The genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas primarily focuses on Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups and Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups.[1] Autosomal"atDNA" markers are also used, but differ from mtDNA or Y-DNA in that they overlap significantly.[2] The genetic pattern indicates Indigenous Amerindians experienced two very distinctive genetic episodes; first with the initial peopling of the Americas, and secondly with European colonization of the Americas.[3][4] The former is the determinant factor for the number of gene lineages, zygosity mutations and founding haplotypes present in today's Indigenous Amerindian populations.[5]

 

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